Hello everyone welcome to KnowledgeSuttra. Friends today we are talking about the solar wind and how solar wind affecting Earth. The solar wind consists of plasma and particles from the sun out into space in the form of wind. The sun’s outer layer “corona” reaches temperatures up to 2 million degrees Fahrenheit nearly up to 1.1 degrees Celsius. At this condition, sun’s gravity can’t hold the speedily moving particles and they stream away from the sun.
What is the solar wind and what causes it?
The solar wind is a flood of charged particles discharged from the upper environment of the Sun, called the corona. This plasma comprises for the most part electrons, protons and alpha particles with thermal energy in the vicinity of 1.5 and 10 kV. The solar wind fluctuates in density, temperature, and speeds after some time and over the sun oriented scope and longitude. Its particles can get away from the Sun’s gravity due to their high energy coming about because of the high temperature of the corona, which this is a consequence of the coronal magnetic field.
What happens when solar winds hit the planets?
Where the solar wind meets with a planet that has an all around created magnetic field just like Earth, Jupiter or Saturn the particles are avoided by the Lorentz force. This locale, known as the magnetosphere, makes the particles travel around the planet as opposed to barraging the atmosphere or surface. The magnetosphere is generally formed like a side of the equator as an afterthought confronting the Sun, at that point is attracted out a long wake on the opposite side. The limit of this region is known as the magnetopause, and a portion of the particles can infiltrate the magnetosphere through this district by fractional reconnection of the magnetic field lines.
The solar wind is responsible for the general state of Earth’s magnetosphere. Variances in its speed, density, direction, and entrained magnetic field emphatically influence Earth’s nearby space condition. For instance, the levels of ionizing radiation and radio obstruction can fluctuate by variables of hundreds to thousands; and the shape and area of the magnetopause and bow shock wave upstream of it can change by a few Earth radii, presenting geosynchronous satellites to the direct solar wind. These wonders are all things considered called space weather.
Structure of solar wind
The solar wind is seen to exist in two principal states, named the moderate solar wind or slow solar wind and the quick solar wind or fast solar wind, however, their disparities expand well past their speeds. In close Earth space, the slow solar wind is seen to have a speed of 300– 500 km/s, a temperature of 1.4– 1.6×106 K and an arrangement that is a nearby match to the corona. By differentiate, the fast solar wind has a run of the mill speed of 750 km/s, a temperature of 8×105 K and it almost coordinates the arrangement of the Sun’s photosphere. The slow solar wind is twice as thick and more factor in nature than the fast solar wind.
The slow solar wind starts from the region around the Sun’s best known as the “streamer belt”. The correct coronal structures associated with slow solar wind arrangement and the strategy by which the material is discharged is still under level-headed discussion. Perceptions of the Sun in the vicinity of 1996 and 2001 demonstrated that outflow of the slow solar wind happened at scopes up to 30– 35° amid the solar least at the time of most reduced solar action at that point extended toward the shafts as the solar cycle moved toward greatest. At solar greatest, the posts were likewise emanating from a slow solar wind.
The fast solar wind starts from coronal holes, which are channel-like locales of open field lines in the Sun’s magnetic field. Such open lines are especially predominant around the Sun’s magnetic posts. The plasma source is little magnetic fields made by convection cells in the sun oriented environment. These fields limit the plasma and transport it into the tight necks of the coronal channels, which are found just 20,000 kilometers over the photosphere. The plasma is discharged into the coronal funnel when these magnetic field lines reconnect.